Blood urea nitrogen is used to test how well your kidneys are working. Urea is a waste product produced by the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and removed from the body in urine. The amount of urea nitrogen in your bloodstream, in conjunction with other biomarkers, can be used as an indicator of kidney health. High levels of urea nitrogen indicate that your kidneys may not be functioning well to filter your blood.
Elevated blood urea nitrogen can result from complications related to diabetes or high blood pressure, conditions that block the flow of urine, such as kidney stones, or damage to your kidneys from an infection or autoimmune disease. Additionally, factors that cause decreased blood flow to the kidneys, such as congestive heart failure or dehydration, may cause elevated blood urea nitrogen levels. To find the root cause of your elevated blood urea level, additional testing will be required.
Age and sex are factors that can affect blood urea levels. Women and children tend to have lower blood urea levels, and all individuals tend to have rising blood urea levels as they age. Women may have lower blood urea levels during the second or third trimester of their pregnancies.
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