Show your appreciation. Take 25% off select tests until 06/20 with code FATHERSDAY at checkout.SHOP TESTS

< Back

The Research

A comprehensive list of scientific journal references that reinforce our testing methodology

Food & respiratory allergy health:

1. Lau J, et al. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67:705-706.

2. Wheeler PW, et al. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72:1057-1062.

3. Wallace DV, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2008;122(2 suppl):S1-S84.

4. Szeinbach SL, et al. J Manag Care Pharm. 2004;10(3):234-238.

5. Welsh N, et al. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2006;46:627.

6. AHRQ. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment Number 54. 2002. AHRQ publication 02-E023.

7. Diagnostic Clinical Information: The Value of Allergen Identification.Kalamazoo, MI: Pharmacia & 8. Upjohn Company; 1998. Publication 98006.01.

Women’s general health:

1. Courtney Nagel Sandler, MDMarie E. McDonnell, MD 2016 May, The role of hemoglobin A1c in the assessment of diabetes and cardiovascular risk Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine ; 83 Suppl 1(5):S4-S10

2. Ivana R Sequeira, Sally D Poppitt1 2017, HbA1c as a marker of prediabetes: A reliable screening tool or not, Review Article - Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism () Volume 1, Issue 1

3. Ike S. Okosun, J. Paul Seale, Rodney Lyn and Y. Monique Davis-Smith. 20 November 2015, Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests. Frontier, Public Health, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00260;

4. Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen UDT, Tran TX, Nguyen TV. August 17, 2017, Discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes: comparison between HbA1c and fasting plasma PLOS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182192

5. Simmons RK, Rahman M, Jakes RW, et al. 2011, Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes on mortality: long-term follow-up of the Ely cohort. Diabetologia.; 54(2): 312–319.

6. Couderc R1, Antar M1, Bonnefont-Rousselot D2, Paul JL3, Therond P4. Couderc R, et al. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2017. Blood lipid tests in 2017. Review article

7. Screening for Dyslipidemia in Younger Adults: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Chou R, Dana T, Blazina I, Daeges M, Bougatsos C, Jeanne TL Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(8):560.

8. Clinical utility of different lipid measures for prediction of coronary heart disease in men and women. Ingelsson E, Schaefer EJ, Contois JH, McNamara JR, Sullivan L, Keyes MJ, Pencina MJ, Schoonmaker C, Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Vasan RS. JAMA. 2007;298(7):776.

9. Lipid parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease. Arsenault BJ, Boekholdt SM, Kastelein JJ; Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011 Apr;8(4):197-206. Epub 2011 Feb 01.

10. Clinical Utility of a Fingerstick Technology to Identify Individuals With Abnormal Blood Lipids and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels Parin Parikh, MD, Heidi Mochari, MPH, RD, and Lori Mosca, MD, MPH, PhD; Am J Health Promot. 2009 Mar–Apr; 23(4): 279–282. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.071221140

11. Monitoring vitamin D status and intake in the US population: essential to understanding the role of vitamin D in health Mona S Calvo; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 110, Issue 1, July 2019, Pages 6–7, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz069

12. Manson JE, Brannon PM, Rosen CJ, Taylor CL. Vitamin D Deficiency - Is There Really a Pandemic? N Engl J Med 2016; 375:1817.

13. Forrest KY, Stuhldreher WL. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res 2011; 31:48.

14. Yetley EA. Assessing the vitamin D status of the US population. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88:558S.

15. Miller W, Myers G, Ashwood E, et al. Creatinine measurement: state of the art in accuracy and interlaboratory harmonization. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005;129(3):297–304

16. Silva AC1, Gómez JF2, Lugon JR1, Graciano ML1. Bras Nefrol.2016 Mar;38(1):15-21. doi: 10.5935/0101-2800.20160004. Creatinine measurement on dry blood spot sample for chronic kidney disease screening.

17. AABB Ad Hoc Iron-Deficiency Working Group. AABB donor iron deficiency risk-based decision-making assessment report; 2018 [cited 2019 March 11]. Available from: https://www.aabb.org/tm/Documents/AABB-Donor-Iron-Deficiency-RBDM-Assessment-Report.pdf

18. TSH Alone, Without Concomitant Free T4, Should Be Used for Initial Thyroid Dysfunction Screening; Elizabeth N. Pearce Published Online: 1 June 2018https://doi.org/10.1089/ct.2018;30.255-257

19. Schneider C et al 2018 Initial evaluation of thyroid dysfunction—are simultaneous TSH and fT4 tests necessary? PLoS One 13:e0196631.PMID: 29709030.

20. Sheehan M. T. (2016). Biochemical Testing of the Thyroid: TSH is the Best and, Oftentimes, Only Test Needed - A Review for Primary Care. Clinical medicine & research, 14(2), 83–92. doi:10.3121/cmr.2016.130

21. TSH Measurement and Its Implications for Personalised Clinical Decision-Making; Journal of Thyroid Research Volume 2012, Article ID 438037, 9 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/438037 Rudolf Hoermann1 and John E. M. Midgley2

Men's general health:

1. Courtney Nagel Sandler, MDMarie E. McDonnell, MD 2016 May, The role of hemoglobin A1c in the assessment of diabetes and cardiovascular risk Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine ; 83 Suppl 1(5):S4-S10

2. Ivana R Sequeira, Sally D Poppitt12017, HbA1c as a marker of prediabetes: A reliable screening tool or not, Review Article - Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism () Volume 1, Issue 1

3. Ike S. Okosun, J. Paul Seale, Rodney Lyn and Y. Monique Davis-Smith. 20 November 2015, Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests. Frontier, Public Health, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00260;

4. Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen UDT, Tran TX, Nguyen TV. August 17, 2017, Discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes: comparison between HbA1c and fasting plasma PLOS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182192

5. Simmons RK, Rahman M, Jakes RW, et al. 2011, Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes on mortality: long-term follow-up of the Ely cohort. Diabetologia.; 54(2): 312–319.

6. Couderc R1, Antar M1, Bonnefont-Rousselot D2, Paul JL3, Therond P4. Couderc R, et al. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2017. Blood lipid tests in 2017. Review article

7. Screening for Dyslipidemia in Younger Adults: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Chou R, Dana T, Blazina I, Daeges M, Bougatsos C, Jeanne TL Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(8):560.

8. Clinical utility of different lipid measures for prediction of coronary heart disease in men and women. Ingelsson E, Schaefer EJ, Contois JH, McNamara JR, Sullivan L, Keyes MJ, Pencina MJ, Schoonmaker C, Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Vasan RS. JAMA. 2007;298(7):776.

9. Lipid parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease. Arsenault BJ, Boekholdt SM, Kastelein JJ; Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011 Apr;8(4):197-206. Epub 2011 Feb 01.

10. Clinical Utility of a Fingerstick Technology to Identify Individuals With Abnormal Blood Lipids and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels Parin Parikh, MD, Heidi Mochari, MPH, RD, and Lori Mosca, MD, MPH, PhD; Am J Health Promot. 2009 Mar–Apr; 23(4): 279–282. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.071221140

11. Monitoring vitamin D status and intake in the US population: essential to understanding the role of vitamin D in health Mona S Calvo; The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 110, Issue 1, July 2019, Pages 6–7, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz069

12. Manson JE, Brannon PM, Rosen CJ, Taylor CL. Vitamin D Deficiency - Is There Really a Pandemic? N Engl J Med 2016; 375:1817.

13. Forrest KY, Stuhldreher WL. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res 2011; 31:48.

14. Yetley EA. Assessing the vitamin D status of the US population. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88:558S.

15. Miller W, Myers G, Ashwood E, et al. Creatinine measurement: state of the art in accuracy and interlaboratory harmonization. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005;129(3):297–304

16. Silva AC1, Gómez JF2, Lugon JR1, Graciano ML1. Bras Nefrol.2016 Mar;38(1):15-21. doi: 10.5935/0101-2800.20160004. Creatinine measurement on dry blood spot sample for chronic kidney disease screening.

17. AABB Ad Hoc Iron-Deficiency Working Group. AABB donor iron deficiency risk-base decision-making assessment report; 2018 [cited 2019 March 11]. Available from: https://www.aabb.org/tm/Documents/AABB-Donor-Iron-Deficiency-RBDM-Assessment-Report.pdf

18. Alpert PF; Urology.2018 Aug;118:119-126. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2018.02.049. Epub 2018 May 14. New Evidence for the Benefit of Prostate-specific Antigen Screening: Data From 400,887 Kaiser Permanente Patients.

19. Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, Mariotto A, et al. Quantifying the role of PSA screening in the US prostate cancer mortality decline. Cancer Causes Control 2008; 19:175..

20. Screening for prostate cancer decreases the risk of developing metastatic disease: findings from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) Schröder FH, Hugosson J, Carlsson S, Tammela T, Määttänen L, Auvinen A, Kwiatkowski M,

Recker F, Roobol MJ; Eur Urol. 2012;62(5):745. Epub 2012 Jun 7.

21. Reconciling the Effects of Screening on Prostate Cancer Mortality in the ERSPC and PLCO Trials; Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(7):449-455. Published at www.annals.org on 5 September 2017; DOI: 10.7326/M16-2586

22. Livingston M, Kalansooriya A, Hartland AJ, Ramachandran S, Heald A. Serum testosterone levels in male hypogonadism: Why and when to check-A review. Int J Clin Pract. 2017;71(11):e12995. doi:10.1111/ijcp.1299

23. Should Family Physicians Screen for Testosterone Deficiency in Men? Yes: Screening Joel J. Heidelbaugh, MD, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Am Fam Physician. 2015 Feb 15;91(4):220-221.

24. McBride JA, Carson CC 3rd, Coward RM. Testosterone deficiency in the aging male. Ther Adv Urol. 2016;8(1):47–60. doi:10.1177/175628721561296

25. Crawford ED1, Barqawi AB, O'Donnell C, Morgentaler A.; The association of time of day and serum testosterone concentration in a large screening population. BJU Int.2007 Sep;100(3):509-13. Epub 2007 Jun 6.

Cardiovascular health:

1. Courtney Nagel Sandler, MDMarie E. McDonnell, MD 2016 May, The role of hemoglobin A1c in the assessment of diabetes and cardiovascular risk Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine ; 83 Suppl 1(5):S4-S10

2. Ivana R Sequeira, Sally D Poppitt1 2017, HbA1c as a marker of prediabetes: A reliable screening tool or not, Review Article - Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism () Volume 1, Issue 1

3. Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen UDT, Tran TX, Nguyen TV. August 17, 2017, Discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes: comparison between HbA1c and fasting plasma PLOS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182192

4. Simmons RK, Rahman M, Jakes RW, et al. 2011, Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes on mortality: long-term follow-up of the Ely cohort. Diabetologia.; 54(2): 312–319.

5. Couderc R1, Antar M1, Bonnefont-Rousselot D2, Paul JL3, Therond P4. Couderc R, et al. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2017. Blood lipid tests in 2017. Review article

6. Screening for Dyslipidemia in Younger Adults: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Chou R, Dana T, Blazina I, Daeges M, Bougatsos C, Jeanne TL Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(8):560.

7. Clinical utility of different lipid measures for prediction of coronary heart disease in men and women. Ingelsson E, Schaefer EJ, Contois JH, McNamara JR, Sullivan L, Keyes MJ, Pencina MJ, Schoonmaker C, Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Vasan RS. JAMA. 2007;298(7):776.

8. Lipid parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease. Arsenault BJ, Boekholdt SM, Kastelein JJ; Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011 Apr;8(4):197-206. Epub 2011 Feb 01.

9. Clinical Utility of a Fingerstick Technology to Identify Individuals With Abnormal Blood Lipids and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels Parin Parikh, MD, Heidi Mochari, MPH, RD, and Lori Mosca, MD, MPH, PhD; Am J Health Promot. 2009 Mar–Apr; 23(4): 279–282. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.071221140

Diabetic health:

1. Courtney Nagel Sandler, MDMarie E. McDonnell, MD 2016 May, The role of hemoglobin A1c in the assessment of diabetes and cardiovascular risk Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine ; 83 Suppl 1(5):S4-S10

2. Ivana R Sequeira, Sally D Poppitt1 2017, HbA1c as a marker of prediabetes: A reliable screening tool or not, Review Article - Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism () Volume 1, Issue 1

3. Ho-Pham LT, Nguyen UDT, Tran TX, Nguyen TV. August 17, 2017, Discordance in the diagnosis of diabetes: comparison between HbA1c and fasting plasma PLOS ONE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0182192

4. Simmons RK, Rahman M, Jakes RW, et al. 2011, Effect of population screening for type 2 diabetes on mortality: long-term follow-up of the Ely cohort. Diabetologia.; 54(2): 312–319.

5. Couderc R1, Antar M1, Bonnefont-Rousselot D2, Paul JL3, Therond P4. Couderc R, et al. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2017. Blood lipid tests in 2017. Review article

6. Screening for Dyslipidemia in Younger Adults: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Chou R, Dana T, Blazina I, Daeges M, Bougatsos C, Jeanne TL Ann Intern Med. 2016;165(8):560.

7. Clinical utility of different lipid measures for prediction of coronary heart disease in men and women. Ingelsson E, Schaefer EJ, Contois JH, McNamara JR, Sullivan L, Keyes MJ, Pencina MJ, Schoonmaker C, Wilson PW, D'Agostino RB, Vasan RS. JAMA. 2007;298(7):776.

8. Lipid parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease. Arsenault BJ, Boekholdt SM, Kastelein JJ; Nat Rev Cardiol. 2011 Apr;8(4):197-206. Epub 2011 Feb 01.

9. Clinical Utility of a Fingerstick Technology to Identify Individuals With Abnormal Blood Lipids and

High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels Parin Parikh, MD, Heidi Mochari, MPH, RD, and Lori Mosca, MD, MPH, PhD; Am J Health Promot. 2009 Mar–Apr; 23(4): 279–282. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.071221140



Immune health - Celiac:

1. Giersiepen K(1), Lelgemann M, Stuhldreher N, Ronfani L, Husby S, Koletzko S, Korponay-Szaba IR; ESPGHAN Working Group on Celiac Disease Diagnosis

2. Matthis Oyaert, Pieter Vermeersch, Gert De Hertogh, Martin Hiele, Nathalie Vandeputte, Ilse Hoffman and Xavier Bossuyt* Combining antibody tests and taking into account antibody levels improves serologic diagnosis of celiac disease DOI 10.1515/cclm-2013-1099 Recieved December 21, 2013; accepted January 9 2015; previously published online February 19,2015

3. Ingrid Dahlboma, Britt-Inger Nyberga, Lillemor Berntsona and Tony Hansson Simultaneous detection of IgA and IgG antibodies against tissue transglutaminase: The preferred pre-biopsy test in childhood celiac disease Departments of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala, Sweden, 26, February 2016

4. Pieter Vermeersch, * Karel Geboes, Godelieve marien, Ilse Hoffman, Martin Hiele and Xavier Bossuyt Defining Threshold of Antibody Levels Improves Diagnosis of Celiac Disease

5. Akobeng AK. Understanding diagnostic tests 2: likelihood ratios, pre - and post-test probabilities and their use in clinical practice. Acta Paediatrica 2006: 96:487-91

6. Sonis J, How to Use and Interpret Interval Likelihood Ratios. Fam Med 1999;31(5)432-7

7. Rubio-Tapia A. Ludvigsson JF, Brantner TL et al. The prevalence of celiac disease in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107(10):1538-44

8. Parikh R. Parikh S. Arun E et al. Likelihood ratios: Clinical application in day-to day practice, Indian J Ophthalmol, 2009;57(3):217-221

9. Lakos G, Norman GL Mahler M et al. Analytical and Clinical Comparison of Two Fully Automated Immunoassay Systems for the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease Journal of Immunology Research, vol 2014. Article ID 371263, 9 pages, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/371263

10. Vermeersch P, Geboes K Marien G et al. Serological diagnosis of celiac disease: Comparative analysis of different strategies. Clinica Chimica Acta 2012; 413:1761-1767

11. Dahlboma I, Nyberga B-I, Berntsona L, et al. Simultaneous detection of IgA and IgG antibodies against transglutaminase: The preferred pre-biopsy test in childhood celiac disease Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2016;76(3):208-216

12. Tape TG. Interpreting Diagnostic Tests. http://gim.unmc.edu/dxtests/Default.htm

13. Vermeersch P, Richter T Hauer Ac, et al. Use of likelihood ratio improves clinical interpretation of IgG and IgA anti-DGP antibody testing for celiac disease in adults and children. Clnicial Biochemistry 2011; 44;248 -250

14. Vermeersch P, Geboes K Marien G et al. Defining Threshold of Antibody Levels improves Diagnosis of Celiac Disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013;11:398-403

15. Sugai E, Moreno ML Hwang, HJ et al. Celiac disease serology in patients with different pretest probabiltiies: Is biopsy avoidable? World J Gastroenterol 2010; 16(25) 3144-3152

Immune health - Rheumatoid arthritis:

1. 2010 Rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: An American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. 2010 Rheumatoid Arthritis Classification Criteria.

2. T.B. Niewold M.J. Harrison S.A. Paget. Anti-CCP antibody testing as a diag nostic and prognostic tool in rheumatoid arthritis. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, Volume 100, Issue 4, 1 April 2007, Pages 193–2 01, https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcm015

3. Andreas Swart, Rufus W. Burlingame, Irmgard Gürtler, Michael Mahler, Clinica Chimica Acta. Third generation anti-citrullinated peptide antibody assay is a sensitive marker in rheumato id factor negative rheumatoid arthritis.

4. Salvatore Corrao, Luigi Calvo, Giuseppe Licata. The new criteria for classification of rheumatoi d arthritis: what we need to know for clinical practice. European Journal of Internal Medicine.

5. J. Adam Rindfeisch, M.D., and Daniel Muller, M.D., Ph.D. Diagnosis and Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis - American Family Physician. University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

6. Eugene Mochan, DO, PhD, Mark H. Ebell, MD, MS. Predicting Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk in Adults w ith Undifferentiated Arthritis. Am Fam Physician. 2008 May 15;77(10):1451-1453.

7. C Rakieh, J L Nam, L Hunt, E M A Hensor, S Das, L-A Bissell, E Villeneuve, D McGonagle, R Hodgson, A Grainger, R J Wakefield, P G Conaghan, P Emery. Predicting the develo pment of clinical arthritis in anti-CCP positive individuals with non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms: a prospective observational cohort study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017;176(2):133-141.

8. Anne Miller, Alison L. Nightingale, Cormac J. Sammon, Kamal R. Mahtani, Tim A. Holt, Neil J. McHugh, and Raashid A. Luqmani. Estimating the diagnostic accuracy of rheumatoid factor in UK primary care: a study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. OP-BRHE 150131 1882..1889, Rheumatology.

9. A/P Lau Tang Ching Approach to Symme trical Polyarthritis with Focus on Rheumatoid Arthritis. Updates in Rheumatology

10. Lotte Arwen van de Stadt, Birgit I Witte, Wouter H Bos, Dirkjan van Schaardenburg. A prediction rule for the development of arthritis in seropositive arthralgia patient s. Clinical and epidemiological research.

11. Penny F. Whiting, PhD; Nynke Smidt, PhD; Jonathan A.C. Sterne, PhD; Roger Harbord, MSc; Anya Burton, BSc; Margaret Burke, MSc; Rebecca Beynon, MA; Yoav Ben-Shlomo, PhD, MD; John Axford, DSc, MD; and Paul Dieppe, MD. Systematic Review: Accuracy of Anti–Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies for Diagnosing Rheuma toid Arthritis. Annals of Internal Medicine.